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The 14th Amendment to the Constitution was ratified on July 9, 1868, and granted citizenship to “all persons born or naturalized in the United States,” which included former slaves recently freed. In addition, it forbids states from denying any person "life, liberty or property, without due process of law" or to "deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.” By directly mentioning the role of the states, the 14th Amendment greatly expanded the protection of civil rights to all Americans and is cited in more litigation than any other amendment.
The fourteenth amendment to the Constitution considered : the right to pursue any lawful trade or avocation, without other restraint than such as equally affects all persons, is one of the privileges of citizens of the United States which can not be abridged by state legislation / dissenting opinions of Mr. Justice Field, Mr. Justice Bradley, and Mr. Justice Swayne, of U.S. Supreme Court, in the New Orleans slaughter-house cases.
Negro suffrage : should the fourteenth and fifteenth amendments be repealed? / Speech of Hon. Edward De V. Morrell, of Pennsylvania, in the House of Representatives, Monday, April 4, 1904.
Suffrage conferred by the Fourteenth amendment. Woman's suffrage in the Supreme court of the District of Columbia, in general term, October, 1871.
On June 2, 1924, Congress enacted the Indian Citizenship Act, which granted citizenship to all Native Americans born in the U.S. The right to vote, however, was governed by state law; until 1957, some states barred Native Americans from voting.
This collection contains congressional publications from 1774 to 1875, including debates, bills, laws, and journals.
June 8, 1866 - The Senate passed the 14th Amendment by a vote of 33 to 11.
June 13, 1866 - The House of Representatives passed the 14th Amendment by a vote of 120 to 32.
June 16, 1866 - The text of the 14th Amendment can be found in the United States Statutes at Large, volume 14, page 358 (14 Stat. 358).
June 22, 1866 - President Andrew Johnson submitted a message to Congress announcing that the Fourteenth Amendment had been sent to the states for ratification. Johnson voiced his displeasure with the amendment by stating that his actions should "be considered as purely ministerial, and in no sense whatever committing the Executive to an approval or a recommendation of the amendment to the State legislatures or to the people."
July 28, 1868 - Secretary of State William Seward issued a proclamation certifying the ratification of the 14th Amendment by the states.
A selection of articles on the 14th Amendment includes:
"Passage of the Constitutional Amendment by the Senate," The Evening Telegraph. (Philadelphia [Pa.]), June 9, 1866.
"The Constitutional Amendment Passed by the House," The Sun. (New York [N.Y.]), June 14, 1866.
"The President on the Amendment," The Daily Phoenix. (Columbia, S.C.), June 24, 1866.
"Reconstruction: Ratification of the Fourteenth Amendment," New-York Tribune. (New York [N.Y.]), July 20, 1868.
The 14th AMENDMENT
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